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IELTS reading answers



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Battle Against Euthanasia ielts reading answers



1. vi

2. iv

3. vii

4. viii

5. ii

6. iii

7. A

8. D

9. E

10. F

11. TRUE

12. TRUE

13. FALSE

Substance Abuse In Teens ielts reading answers



14. iii

15. ix

16. vii

17. i

18. ii

19. v

20. vi

21. TRUE

22. NOT GIVEN

23. FALSE

24. TRUE

25. NOT GIVEN

26. TRUE

The Nobility Of Indian Education ielts reading answers



27. B

28. D

29. F

30. A

31. B

32. B

33. C

34. B

35. TRUE

36. FALSE

37. TRUE

38. FALSE

39. NOT GIVEN

40. FALSE


Battle against Euthanasia

A. Probably the major argument in favor of euthanasia is that the person involved is in great pain. Today, advances are constantly being made in the treatment of pain and, as they advance, the case for euthanasia/assisted-suicide is proportionally weakened Euthanasia advocates stress the cases of unbearable pain as reasons for euthanasia, but then they soon include a "drugged" state. They say those people who are drugged into a no-pain state need to be euthanatized from such a state because it is not dignified. See the opening for the slippery slope? How do you measure "dignity"? No - it will be euthanasia "on demand". The pro-euthanasia folks have already started down the slope They are even now not stopping with "unbearable pain" they are already including this "drugged state" and other circumstances.


B. Nearly all pain can be eliminated and in those rare cases where it can't be eliminated - it can still be reduced significantly if proper treatment is provided. It is a national and international scandal that so many people do not get adequate pain control. But killing is not the answer to that scandal. The solution is to mandate better education of health care professionals on these crucial issues to expand access to health care, and to inform patients about their rights as consumers. Everyone - whether it is a person with a life-threatening illness or a chronic condition - has the right to pain relief. With modern advances in pain control, no patient should ever be in excruciating pain. However, most doctors have never had a course in pain management so they're unaware of what you do. If a patient who is under a doctor's care is in excruciating pain, there's definitely a need to find a different doctor. But that doctor should be one who will control the pain, not one who will kill the patient. There are board certified specialists in pain management who will not only help alleviate physical pain but are skilled in providing necessary support to deal with emotional suffering and depression that often accornpanies physical pain.


C. What we are talking about is not giving a right to the person who is killed, but t the person who does the killing. In other words, euthanasia is not about the right to die. It's about the right to kill. Euthanasia is not about giving rights to the person who dies but, instead, is about changing the law and public policy so that doctors, relatives and others can directly and intentionally end another person's life. People do have the power to commit suicide. Suicide and attempted suicide are not criminalized. Suicide is a tragic, individual act. Euthanasia is not about a private act. It's about letting one person facilitate the death of another. That is a matter of very public concern since it can lead to tremendous abuse, exploitation and erosion of care for the most vulnerable people among us.


D. Neither the law nor medical ethics requires that "everything be done" to keep a person alive. Insistence, against the patient's wishes, that death be postponed by every means available is contrary to law and practice. It would also be cruel and inhumane. There comes a time when continued attempts to cure are not compassionate, wise, or medically sound. That's where hospice, including in home hospice care, can be of such help. That is the time when all efforts should be placed on making the patient's remaining time comfortable. Then, all interventions should be directed to alleviating pain and other symptoms as well as to the provision of emotional and spiritual support for both the patient and the patient's loved ones.


E. Perhaps one of the most important developments in recent years is the increasing emphasis placed on health care providers to contain costs. In such at climate, euthanasia certainly could become a means of cost containment. In the United States, thousands of people have no medical insurance; studies have shown that the poor and minorities generally are not given access to available pain control, and managed-care facilities are offering physicians cash bonuses if they don't provide care for patients. With greater and greater emphasis being placed on managed care, many doctors are at financial risk when they provide treatment for their patients. Legalized euthanasia raises the potential for a profoundly dangerous situation in which doctors could find themselves far better off financially if a seriously ill or disabled person "chooses" to die rather than receive long-term care. Savings to the government may also become a consideration. This could take place if governments cut back on paying for treatment and care and replace them with the "treatment" of death. For example, immediately after the passage of Measure 16, Oregon's law permitting assisted suicide, the state's Medicaid Director, announced that physician-assisted suicide would be paid for as "comfort care under the Oregon Health Plan which provides medical coverage for about 345,000 poor Oregonians. Within eighteen months of Measure 16's passage, the State of Oregon announced plans to cut back on health care coverage for poor state residents. In Canada, hospital stays are being shortened while, at the same time, funds have not been made available for home care for the sick and elderly. Registered nurses are being replaced with less expensive practical nurses. Patients are forced to endure long waits for many types of needed surgery.


F. People who support euthanasia often say that it is already considered permissible to take human life under some circumstances such as self defense - but they miss the point that when one kills for self defense they are saving innocent life either their own or someone else's. With euthanasia no one's life is being saved life is only taken. History has taught us the dangers of euthanasia and that is why there are only two countries in the world today where it is legal. That is why almost all societies - even non-religious ones - for thousands of years have made euthanasia a crime. It is remarkable that euthanasia advocates today think they know better than the billions of people throughout history who have outlawed euthanasia- what makes the 50 year old euthanasia supporters in 2005 so wise that they think they can discard the accumulated wisdom of almost all societies of all time and open the door to the killing of innocent people? Have things changed? If they have, they are changes that should logically reduce the call for euthanasia pain control medicines and procedure are far better than they have ever been any time in history.

Questions 1-6

Reading passage 1 has six marked paragraphs, A-F.

Choose the correct heading for each section, A-F, from the list of headings given below.

Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet


1. Paragraph A

2. Paragraph B

3. Paragraph C

4. Paragraph D

5. Paragraph E

6. Paragraph F

HEADINGS 

i. Oregonians get poor treatment

ii. Euthanasia can become a means of health care cost control

iii. Euthanasia and self-protection are totally different

iv. Pain is no more unbearable

v. 

v. Forgetting the history

vi.

vii. Reasons on shaky grounds

viii. Demanding the right to commit suicide Should people be forced to stay alive?

IX. How to control pain?


Questions 7-10

Which of the following are mentioned as the points against Euthanasia in reading passage 1?

Write the correct letters, A-G, in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.


A. May be used as a way to save money

B. Patient may be too ill to take a wise decision.

C. History has proved that Euthanasia is not effective

D. Uncontrollable pain is an extremely rare condition in modern days

E. Can be misused to eliminate vulnerable people It is similar to killing for self-protection

F. It is similar to killing for self-protection

G. Totally different from killing for self protection


Questions 11-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 11-13 of your answer sheet, write


TRUE : if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE : if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN : if there is no information on this

Statements

11. In countries where Euthanasia is legalized, people with serious medical conditions are getting a raw deal.

12. Pain control is much more advanced now than it has ever been.

13. According to the writer, people do not have the right to commit suicide.


SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN TEENS

A. It would be surprising for many people to know that a considerable proportion of youth, ranging from 13 years to 16 years old drink and smoke. These characters have not been pulled out from any Hollywood movies or fiction. Unfortunately, they are 'real' children who see no wrong in abusing substances and drugs. Rather, without any remorse, they feel that by doing so, they are confirming to the 'cool' image. And this phenomenon is no longer limited to cities or within a particular section of society. Worse, it is fast catching popularity among today's children.


B. Exposure and addiction to alcohol and tobacco, sedatives sold over medical counters despite regulations and sniffing of inhalants such as glue and whitener are posing a serious problem. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) report titled 'The Tobacco Use and Control Efforts', 9.7 percent teenage girls in India use some form of tobacco. Similarly, 17.3 per cent teenage boys have taken to smoking. The study also revealed that tobacco use in India starts at quite a young age and in many cases at schools. 14.1 per cent of youngsters consume tobacco products like cigarettes and bidis.


C. There are various reasons why children take up drug and alcohol use: to kill boredom, to be accepted by peers, to escape from family problems or to relieve the tension of not performing well academically. Also, taking drugs or abusing substances is seen to be the easiest route to gain popularity and feel accepted. The matter is further compounded with parents getting to spend less time with their children and trying to compensate it by giving allowances and fulfilling their every demand.


D. Wilson, a counselor with a Delhi based rehabilitation centre revealed that children as young as 13 years are coming for treatment and counseling for alcohol and tobacco addiction. He further highlighted that besides friends, peers and celebrity 'movie icons', parents and family members were also evolving as factors responsible for initiating the child to experiment with drugs. The child gets confused to see his role models (parents) drinking and smoking and tries to imitate the same without realising that drug habit once initiated continues to stay. "I used to often see my parents drinking. Out of curiosity, I started sipping the leftover drink from my father's glass," shared a student. An official from a reputed non governmental organization (NGO) revealed that in order to establish bonds and create a feeling of parent-child-friendship, some parents were in fact encouraging children to join them in their social drinking sessions. This may come as a shocking piece of news, but sadly this is true.


E. Taneja, an event manager and mother of two children, sees no problem when her teenage son occasionally indulges with beer. "These days, all kids in their teenage years drink on social occasions. We have to change our mindset accordingly. I invite my children to drink with me and this has increased our bonding. They share everything with me right from their girlfriends, crushes, etc. It's not as if they are becoming addicts," she explains.


F. We all know that drug abuse of any kind is harmful and addiction is an unpredictable event. Since adolescence is a period of transition and growing up, children are bound to experiment. Let us admit it that teenagers are likely to experiment with sex, drugs, alcohol, even clothes and makeup on the fast track to adulthood.


G. The big question is what are we as parents, teachers or concerned citizen going to do about it? Banning drugs, brushing the subject or even keeping children away from them is definitely not a solution. What we need to do is discuss this subject openly, share facts and information on drugs with the child, clear myths and misconceptions associated with drug use, impart the child with refusal and negotiation skills so that when he is offered drugs, he can firmly and politely say, "No thank you, I have better things in life to do."


Questions 14-20

Reading passage 2 has seven marked paragraphs, A-G. paragraph A-G from the

Choose the correct heading for each paragraph given below.

Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.


14. Paragraph A

15. Paragraph B

16. Paragraph C

17. Paragraph D

18. Paragraph E

19. Paragraph F

20. Paragraph G

Headings

i. Experts reveal the reasons

ii. Example of an erring parent

iii. Teen drug abuse: a widespread phenomenon

iv. effects of drug use

v. Accepting the reality.

vi. How to control the problem?

vii. What makes children turn to drug abuse?

viii. Relieving tension through drugs

ix. Frightening figures


Questions 21-26

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 21-26 of your answer sheet, write


TRUE : if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE : if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN : if there is no information on this

Statements

21. The trend of drug abuse is growing fast in children.

22. The percentage of adult addicts is higher than that of teen addicts

23. An equal proportion of boys and girls are inclined to alcohol and drug addiction.

24. Poor performance in study is a contributing factor in substance abuse.

25. Most of the time, alcohol and tobacco addiction is due to peer group influence

26. Some parents think that drinking with their children helps strengthen relations.


THE NOBILITY OF INDIAN EDUCATION

A. With its plurality and paradoxes, India never ceases to fascinate. And education in India is only one among various other elements that have captured the attention of the world. While the United Nations is worried about the presence of a large number of illiterates, various other countries are amazed by the quality of some of the human resources that the Indian education system has produced.

B. The Vedas, Puranas, Ayurveda, Yoga, Kautilya's Arthasahtra are only some of the milestones that the traditional Indian knowledge system boasts of. There are evidences of imparting formal education in ancient India under the Gurukul system. Under the Gurukul system, young boys who were passing through the Brahmacharya stage of life had to stay at the Guru or the teacher's home and complete their education. Although the ancient system of education has produced many geniuses and still a major area of research, it was hardly egalitarian Women and people of lower castes gradually lost their right to educate themselves. The spread of Jainism, Buddhism, Bhakti and Sufi movements did have some liberating effects on the condition of the women, sudras and atisudras. But it is the English language and the reformation movements of the 19th century that had the most liberating effect in pre-independent India. Thus, the Britishers, although rightly criticized for devastating the Indian economy, can also be credited for bringing a revolution in the Indian education system.

C. Soon after gaining independence in 1947, making education available. to all had become a priority for the government. As discrimination on the basis of caste and gender has been a major impediment in the healthy development of the Indian society, they have been made unlawful by the Indian constitution. The 86th constitutional amendment has also made elementary education a fundamental right for the children between the age group- 6 to 14. According to the 2001 census, the total literacy rate in India is 65.38%. The female literacy rate is only 54.16%. The gap between rural and urban literacy rate is also very significant in India. This is evident from the fact that only 59.4% of rural population is literate as against 80.3% urban population according to the 2001 census. In order to develop the higher education system, the government had established the University Grants Commission in 1953. The primary role of UGC has been to regulate the standard and spread of higher education in India. There has been a marked progress in the expansion of higher education if we look at the increase of higher educational institutes in India. The higher education system in India comprises of more than17000 colleges, 20 central universities, 217 State Universities, 106 Deemed Universities and 13 institutes of National importance. This number will soon inflate as the setting up of 30 more central universities, 8 new IITS, 7 IIMs and 5 new Indian Institutes of Science are now proposed.

D. The present education system in India mainly comprises of primary education, secondary education, senior secondary education and higher education. Elementary education consists of eight years of education. Each of secondary and senior secondary education. consists of two years of education. Higher education in India starts after passing the higher secondary education or the 12th standard. Depending on the stream, doing graduation in India can take three to five years. Post graduate courses are generally of two to three years of duration. After completing post graduation, scope for doing research in various educational institutes also remains open.

E. As education is the means for bringing socio-economic transformation in a society, various measures are being taken to enhance the access of education to the marginalized sections of the society. One such measure is the introduction of the reservation system in the institutes of higher education. Under the present law, 7.5% seats in the higher educational institutes are reserved for the scheduled tribes, 15% for scheduled castes and 27% for the non creamy layers of the Other Backward Classes (OBCs). Under the Indian constitution, various minority groups can also set up their own educational institutes. Efforts are also being taken to improve the access to higher education among the women of India by setting up various educational institutes exclusively for them or reserving seats in the already existing institutes. The growing acceptance of distance learning courses and expansion of the Open University system is also contributing a lot in the democratization of higher education in India.

F. Despite all the efforts to develop the education system in India, access, equity and quality of education in India continue to haunt the policy makers till this date. This has mainly been due to the widespread poverty and various prejudices. The inability to check the drop out rates among the marginalized sections of the population is another cause of worry. However, the renewed emphasis in the education sector in the 11th five year plan and increased expenditure in both primary and higher education can act as palliatives for the Indian education system.


Questions 27-34

Reading Passage 3 has six paragraphs, A-F.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet


27. Special provisions for educating lower sections of the society.

28. The education system followed in India these days.

29. Problems faced by Indian education system these days.

30. The fact that other countries are surprised at the quality of Indian education.

31. How education was imparted in ancient India.

32. Some great literary works of ancient India.

33. Demographic distribution of education in India.

34. The role of British in reforming Indian education.


Questions 35-40

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading passage 3?

In boxes 35-40 of your answer sheet, write


TRUE : if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE : if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN : if there is no information on this

Statements

35. As per the United Nations statics, there are a large number of uneducated people in India.

36. In ancient India, education was imparted without discrimination.

37. Liberation of education in India was the result of a number of factors.

38. Improvement in higher education in India has been negligible in these years.

39. Higher education has become a lot cheaper due to the increasing number of educational institutes.

40. The literacy rates in both rural and urban areas are almost equal.